Dutch tech consulting firm ‘Water and Energy Solutions’ looks at optimization opportunities and cost saving potential in industrial production sites.

Their services offer is advertised with this sample Sankey diagram.

Their approach called “Flux Technology” is a methodology that “first considers a production site at the largest possible scope, focusing primarily on intersecting process and utility streams. At different scope levels we analyze site, plant(s), unit operations, equipment and general operations both qualitatively as well as quantitatively.”

From the Swiss Energy Statistics for 2005 published by BFS comes the following Sankey diagram.

Flows are in GWh. The large pale streams on the left are imports and exports. The vertical bands are domestic energy production (different types of electricity generation) at the top. A breakdown of the consuming sectors is shown in the lower part.

Will try to dig out a more recent energy balance for Switzerland to compare.

The Energy Education References Wiki has a page on Sankey diagrams. It features many samples, snippets and links directed at teachers.

One image in particular caught my attention. This is described as “Energy Display System” created by CSIS in the 70s


(via Energy Education References Wiki)

You all know those national energy flow Sankey diagrams I show here regularly? Now imagine the same type of image as a series consecutive frames for several years. This would produce a kind of animated gif or movie showing changes over time.

The above must be an early 3D version of this. The diagrams are mounted on what seems to be acrylic glass…

Regular readers of this blog have seen the national energy flow diagrams (energy balances) before. I have featured them from many different countries already.

I finally came across a similar Sankey diagram the energy flows of Europe for 2010. It is featured on the European Energy Agency (EEA) website in a report titled ‘Overview of the European energy system (ENER 036) – Assessment published Mar 2013′.

“The figure is a Sankey diagram which shows the composition of the primary energy entering the energy system of the EU-27 in 2010, and where this primary energy was used, either as losses or as consumption by specific sectors of the economy”. It is based on EUROSTAT data for the EU-27 countries.

A legend is available below for the coloured arrows. The diagram is extensively explained and commented on the web page.

In addition to what we have seen in such diagrams, the primary energy (fuels) is further differentiated with two separate input flows whether the energy carrier was imported or is from domestic European production. This is to visualize dependency on imports.

A 2002 Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) report on energy efficiency by UK’s Environment Agency features the following Sankey diagram on page 10.

It shows energy flows in a paper mill. Unfortuntately no values are given nor a unit. So this is to be considered merely as a schematic diagram, not necessarily based on real energy data.

The guidance document explains (p.9):

“It is useful to supplement energy consumption information with energy balances (e.g. “Sankey” diagrams, other flow diagrams or descriptions) to illustrate how energy is used throughout the process (see Figure 2.1). This is particularly relevant where energy conversion is highly integrated within the activities, in order to illustrate any inter-dependencies between energy use and selection of other operational or environmental control measures.”

After presenting the energy balance Sankey diagrams for Guatemala and Costa Rica in recent posts, here is a similar diagram for Mexico. Flows are in Petajoule (PJ) for 2011.

Found this also in the INCyTDE blog post mentioned before.

David Wogan at the Scientific American blogs that “Over 12 percent of all U.S. energy consumption is directly related to water”. This was identified in a 2012 study by researchers of UT Austin.

The values in this Sankey diagram are for 2010 in trillion BTU. Energy is used for direct and indirect water services such as steam generation.

The author argues “The study also identifies an interesting policy issue: roughly 25% more energy is used to heat, cool, or pump water than is used for lighting (in the residential and commercial sectors) in the United States – about 5 quads. So why are more efficiency policies and technologies targeted towards lighting and not water conservation?”

Ecowest’s Marc Tobin has this video on Sankey diagrams up on his Youtube channel. He uses LLNLs energy flow diagrams to explain differences in the energy pattern in the 11 western states.

I particularly like it when he comments that Sankey diagrams are much appreciated by “data visulization nerds”… (check out from 0:28).