Tag: France

French Négawatt Energy Scenarios

French Négawatt association is advocating a changed attitude towards energy use, expressed in the three words “sobriété – efficacité – renouvelable” (translates as frugalness/modesty, effciency, renewables). On their website they show Sankey diagrams for a 2010 and a 2050 energy scenario. A simplified and a detailed version is available for both years. Below is the detailed 2010 version.

(see a high-res image with magnifying/zoom feature here)

Flows are in TWh. As common in this type of energy flow Sankey diagram they show in a left-to-right orientation the primary energy sources, energy conversion, and final use. Additionally there is a sum for each of the columns that tells us the overall energy efficiency: In 2010, to provide 1908 TWh energy to the users required 3009 TWh of primary energy (1,58:1).

These Sankey diagrams in my opinion are very-well structured, information-rich and don’t lack a certain esthétique

Energy Flows in France 2011, Rectangles

A Sankey diagram made up from rectangles is shown in this post on the blog ‘8-e.fr’ by MM.

The diagram is based on data for 2011 by the French national statistics bureau (INSEE) and the statistics observatory (SoES) of the Ministry for Environment and Sustainability. The author of the post comments that modifications were made in regard to the conversion of primary energy (“Nous corrigeons ce défaut de principe de l’INSEE pour mettre en relief les énergies primaires et secondaires réellement utilisées ou fournies.”) using average efficiency factors.

There are two sets of units: the black figures in MTEP (French for ‘million tons of oil equivalent’ MTOE) and the blue figures in MWh. Even though the flows are drawn with rectangles, one can grasp the general direction from top to bottom/top to left and losses to the bottom right by means of small arrows on the bands themselves. The width of flows seems to be pretty much to scale. The whole diagram a bit overloaded, with a high information density. Nevertheless, it caught my attention…

Misc Sankey Diagrams Uncommented 03

From the Mostly Uncommented Series, here is another one that has been sitting in my collection.

Black/White Sankey diagram for energy gains and losses in a building. Titles in French. Shadow effects. No values given. Unnecessary crossing of Sankey arrows. Not sure where I downloaded this from, will have to check my bookmarks. In the meantime, pls have a nice week-end…

Contres Territorial Metabolism Sankey

After my last post on the Paris Urban Metabolism I continued to research that topic a little more. I came across another example from France. The below Sankey diagram is from an article on territorial metabolism in the rural village of Contres in France. (“H4 développe une démarche de métabolisme territorial à Contres”).

In this study, the consultant company H4 Valorisation analysed the material and energy flows liked to the villages economic and agricultural activities. Different scenarios were evaluated, focusing primarily on (1) reducing imports and rejects (waste and pollutants), (2) increasing usage of local resources, and (3) looking at reuse of material internally (les rebouclages internes).

The Sankey diagram shows both mass and energy in one diagram, so the inputs and outputs of the central node (representing the village of Contres) are not balanced when summed up. Mass flows are in tons (per year?) in blue and red colors. Energy is in Mwh per year and shown in orange color. Greenhouse gas emissions from energy used is also represented in pale yellow expressed in tonnes of CO2-equivalents.

Mes chers amis: ‘How not to Sankey’

A presentation from 2005 on the French energy flows included the Sankey diagram below (I prefer not to name the author or the link to the original source, in order not to embarass anybody).

This Sankey diagram is pretty much messed up, and definitely a candidate for the “Worst Sankey Diagram Contest” that has already been called for. It took me a few seconds to understand that the flows dangling vertically below the blue arrow are actually a breakdown of the 177 mtep consommation finale. Vraiment … j’ai vu mieux que ça!

This is more or less how I would do it. Less colors, a breakdown of the blue flow into the five consumption sectors.

Energy Balance of France

Found Sankey diagrams with the energy balances of France for several years, thanks to this Planète Bleue blog post.

These energy balances are apparently produced annually by French DGEC (Direction Général de Énergie et Climat) and are different from the energy flow Sankey diagrams for various countries I have shown here in other posts.

In these French energy balances the left side shows the primary energy (expressed in mégatonne équivalent pétrole Mtep, mega tonnes of oil equivalent Mtoe in English) broken down into the different sources, the right side shows the final consumption of energy with the same breakdown. The differences are the energy losses and internal consumption in energy generation.

The large losses for nuclear energy are explained in a footnote for the 2007 diagram, where it says that these can be attributed to the fact that ‘Observatoire de l’Énergie’ (OE) accounting standard is based on heat value:

L’importance des pertes dans le domaine de l’électricité tient largement au mode de calcul adopté depuis 2002 par l’OE: l’électricité d’origine nucléaire est comptabilisée, au niveau de la production, en termes de chaleur, dont les deux tiers sont perdus lors de la conversion en énergie

Nevertheless the Sankey diagram gives a good idea about the efficiency of energy generation for each of the different fuels and the energy mix for France.

For those of you who wish to compare the developments over the last years, here is what I have dug up so far:
2003 is shown on Planete Bleue in this post.
2004 is shown above
2006 can be found here on page 25 (PDF)
2007 can be found here on pages 6/7 (PDF)